The Gram-negative bacteria are isolated from 10% to 25% of brain abscesses or subdural empyemas (Chronic middle-ear infections, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, and chemotherapy-induced neutropenia are risks for Fungal brain abscesses occur with congenital or acquired neutrophil abnormalities, stem cellLesion location or distribution can suggest the pathogen. All 11 to 12 year olds should get a meningococcal conjugate vaccine, with a booster dose at 16 years old. CDC twenty four seven. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V.URL:, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (Eighth Edition)ESCHERICHIA COLI | Occurrence and Epidemiology of Species other than Escherichia coliEncyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition)Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (Fourth Edition)Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn (Seventh Edition)Mulder and Zanen, 1984; Saez-Llorens and McCracken, 1990; Moreno et al., 1994; Synnott et al., 1994Salzman and Rubin, 1996; Martin and Spratt, 1999; Rosenstein et al., 2001Kastenbauer and Pfister, 2003; Weisfelt et al., 2006aClinical Syndromes and Cardinal Features of Infectious Diseases: Approach to Diagnosis and Initial ManagementPrinciples and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (Fourth Edition)ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. (No vaccines are available to protect against non-polio enteroviruses, by far the most common cause of viral meningitis.But vaccines can prevent other meningitis-causing viruses, including mumps, The measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) vaccine, approved in 2005, protects against four meningitis-causing viruses.Separate MMR and varicella vaccines are also available.The vaccines are recommended for all children between 12 months and 12 years old, with the first of two shots given between ages 12 and 15 months, and the second given between ages 4 and 6 years.The CDC recommends that everyone older than 6 months get a Routine shots of the flu vaccine are necessary because the formulation of the vaccine is updated yearly to account for the ever-mutating flu viruses.Meningitis is a serious disease that can spread quickly from person to person. Bacterial meningitis is treated with antibiotics, but there are no specific treatments for viral meningitis.If your doctor suspects you have meningitis, he or she will likely put you on a round of broad-spectrum Antibiotics cannot kill viruses. Since meningococcal disease is uncommon, many people need to get these vaccines in order to measure their effectiveness.Available data suggest that protection from MenACWY vaccines decreases in many teens within 5 years. Hib continues to cause meningitis in older adults, and non-b H. influenzae is an emerging pathogen (Dworkin et al., 2007). These data suggest MenACWY vaccines provide protection to those vaccinated, but probably not to the larger, unvaccinated community (herd immunity). These are usually mild and go away on their own within a few days, but serious reactions are possible.Mild problems following MenACWY vaccination can include:If these problems occur, they usually last for 1 or 2 days.Mild problems following a MenB vaccination can include:If these problems occur, they can last up to 3 to 5 days.For more information on possible side effects from vaccination, visit Your clinician is usually the best place to receive recommended vaccines for you or your child.These vaccines are part of the routine childhood immunization schedule. If you have viral meningitis, you will be taken off whatever antibiotic therapy you may have been initially given.There is no specific treatment for viral meningitis, which is often mild.Most of the time, people recover from viral meningitis in 7 to 10 days with little more than rest, over-the-counter fever reducers or pain medication, and proper fluid intake.But if you have meningitis caused by a herpes virus or If you have bacterial meningitis, you will be treated with one or more antibiotics that target the bacteria causing your infection.A number of other antibiotics may also be used, such as:Fungal meningitis is treated with long courses of high-dose intravenous (IV) antifungal drugs.These medicines are often part of the azole class of antifungal drugs, such as Depending on the type of infection, other antifungals may also be used.Amphotericin B may also be used to treat a rare type of parasitic meningitis caused by Vaccines cannot protect you from the noninfectious causes of meningitis, which include:But meningitis vaccines can protect you from the three most common bacteria that cause the disease in children and adults — Meningococcal disease is any illness caused by the bacterium Menomune, an older vaccine that protected against these four strains, was discontinued in February 2017.The two available meningococcal conjugate vaccines that protect against strains A, C, W-135, and Y are:The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all children ages 11 and 12 receive one of these vaccines, followed by a booster shot at age 16.